Activate AutoCAD Mechanical 2007 with X Force Keygen: A Step-by-Step Guide
to date, numerous studies have reported the effects of extracellular matrix (ecm) stiffness on the mechanical phenotypes of stem cells. moreover, stem cells have been shown to initiate osteogenic differentiation in response to extracellular matrix stiffness. to date, we have no scientific data about the effects of stiffness on the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmscs), which are similar to stem cells of the osteoblastic lineage and have the capacity to differentiate into bone cells. in this study, we explored the effects of matrix stiffness on the differentiation of bmscs a:. first, we analyzed the differentiation of bmscs cultured on collagen hydrogels of different stiffness in monolayer culture. the results showed that cells cultured on a collagen gel with low stiffness (5 kpa) led to a relatively high rate of osteogenesis. however, the rate of osteogenesis on gels with high stiffness (20 kpa) was lower than on gels with low stiffness. we then investigated the chondrogenic differentiation of bmscs cultured on polyurethane (pu) scaffolds of different stiffness. the cells cultured on low-stiffness pu scaffolds showed more pronounced fibrochondrogenesis than those cultured on high-stiffness pu scaffolds. to investigate the role of mechanical stress, we examined the rate of osteogenesis of bmscs cultured on pu scaffolds of low and high stiffness after they were cultured on a mechanical stress. the results showed that cells cultured on a soft substrate exhibited a higher rate of osteogenesis than those cultured on a stiff substrate after the mechanical stress was applied. this trend was the opposite for the rate of chondrogenesis. taken together, our data suggest that the mechanical phenotype of stem cells is regulated by the substrate stiffness, and can be altered by adjusting the substrate stiffness of the ecm.
x force keygen AutoCAD Mechanical 2007 activation